In Europe 415000 people live with bladder cancer.1
The 5-year survival rates for patients diagnosed with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) are very good (~93%). However patients with NMIBC have a high risk of tumour recurrence and progression.2
Patients are assigned a risk score (low, medium, high)3
based on the European Organisation for Research & Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) scoring system to help determine their likelihood of recurrence and/or progression.
White light cystoscopy and urine cytology are still considered the best way of patient surveillance after NMIBC.
Limitations are associated with both methodologies
- White light cystoscopy demonstrates a lack of sensitivity for flat lesions4
- Cystoscopies are unpleasant and may cause discomfort for patients5
- Guideline compliance varies, with significant numbers of patients not receiving all of the follow-up examinations suggested6
- Cytology has low sensitivity for low and intermediate grade tumours7
(1) Ferlay et al. Eur J Cancer. 2013 Apr;49(6):1374-403).;
(2) Babjuk et al. EAU guidelines on non-muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder: update 2013. Eur Urol. 2013;64(4):639–53.;
(3) Sylvester et al. Predicting recurrence and progression in individual patients with stage Ta T1 bladder cancer using EORTC risk tables: a combined analysis of 2596 patients from seven EORTC trials. Eur Urol 2006. 49(3): p. 466-5; discussion 475-7;
(4) Burger et al. Photodynamic diagnosis of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer with hexaminolevulinate cystoscopy: a meta-analysis of detection and recurrence based on raw data. Eur Urol. 2013;64(5):846–54.;
(5) Yeo et al. Listening to music during cystoscopy decreases anxiety, pain, and dissatisfaction in patients: a pilot randomized controlled trial. J Endourol. 2013;27(4):459–62.;
(6) Chamie et al. Quality of Care in Patients with Bladder Cancer: A Case Report Cancer. 2012 Mar 1; 118(5): 1412–1421;
(7) Wiener et al. Accuracy of urinary cytology in the diagnosis of primary and recurrent bladder cancer. Acta Cytol 1993; 37: 163-16.